Publications

2014

Wookhee Min, Eun Young Ha, Jonathan Rowe, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Deep Learning-Based Goal Recognition in Open-Ended Digital Games. To appear in Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment, Raleigh, North Carolina.
Jonathan Rowe, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Optimizing Player Experience in Interactive Narrative Planning: A Modular Reinforcement Learning Approach. To appear in Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment, Raleigh, North Carolina.
Alok Baikadi, Jonathan Rowe, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Generalizability of Goal Recognition Models in Narrative-Centered Learning Environments. To appear in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization, Aalborg, Denmark.
Joseph Grafsgaard, Joseph Wiggins, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eric Wiebe, and James Lester. Predicting Learning and Affect from Multimodal Data Streams in Task-Oriented Tutorial Dialogue. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Educational Data Mining, London, England, pp. 122-129, 2014.
Andy Smith, Eric Wiebe, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. SketchMiner: Mining Learner-Generated Science Drawings with Topological Abstraction. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Educational Data Mining, London, England, pp. 288-291, 2014.
Wookhee Min, Bradford Mott, Jonathan Rowe, and James Lester. Leveraging Semi-Supervised Learning to Predict Student Problem-Solving Performance in Narrative-Centered Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Honolulu, Hawaii, pp. 664-665, 2014.
Jonathan Rowe, Eleni Lobene, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Serious Games Go Informal: A Museum-Centric Perspective on Intelligent Game-Based Learning. Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Honolulu, Hawaii, pp. 410-415, 2014.
Seung Lee, Jonathan Rowe, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. A Supervised Learning Framework for Modeling Director Agent Strategies in Educational Interactive Narrative. IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games, 6(2), 203-215, 2014.
Eun Young Ha, Jonathan Rowe, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Recognizing Player Goals in Open-Ended Digital Games with Markov Logic Networks. Plan, Activity and Intent Recognition: Theory and Practice, Sukthankar, G., Goldman, R., Geib, C., Pynadath, D., Bui, H. H. (Eds.), Morgan Kauffman, Waltham, Massachusetts, pp. 289-311, 2014.
Bradford Mott, Jonathan Rowe, Wookhee Min, Robert Taylor, and James Lester. Flare: An Open Source Toolkit for Creating Expressive User Interfaces for Serious Games. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 2014.
Jonathan Rowe, Eleni Lobene, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Play in the Museum: Designing Game-Based Learning Environments for Informal Education Settings. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 2014.
Jennifer Sabourin and James Lester. Affect and Engagement in Game-Based Learning Environments. IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, 5(1), 45-56, 2014.
Samuel Leeman-Munk, Eric Wiebe, and James Lester. Assessing Elementary Students' Science Competency with Text Analytics. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge, Indianapolis, Indiana, pp. 143-147, 2014.
James Lester, Hiller A. Spires, John Nietfeld, James Minogue, Bradford Mott, and Eleni Lobene. Designing Game-based Learning Environments for Elementary Science Education: A Narrative-centered Learning Perspective. Information Sciences, 264, 4-18, 2014.

2013

James Lester, Bradford Mott, Jonathan Rowe, and Jennifer Sabourin. Learner Modeling to Predict Real-Time Affect in Serious Games. Design Recommendations for Adaptive Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Learner Modeling, Sottilare, R., Graesser, A., Hu, X., and Holden, H. (Eds.), Army Research Labs, Orlando, Florida, pp. 201-210, 2013.
James Lester, Eun Young Ha, Seung Lee, Bradford Mott, Jonathan Rowe, and Jennifer Sabourin. Serious Games Get Smart: Intelligent Game-Based Learning Environments. AI Magazine, 34(4), 31-45, 2013.
Chris Mitchell, Eun Young Ha, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, and James Lester. Learner Characteristics and Dialogue: Recognizing Effective and Student-Adaptive Tutorial Strategies. International Journal of Learning Technology, 8(4), 382-403, 2013.
Jennifer Sabourin, Lucy Shores, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Understanding and Predicting Student Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Game-Based Learning Environments. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 23(1-4), 94-114, 2013.
Joseph Grafsgaard, Joseph Wiggins, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eric Wiebe, and James Lester. Automatically Recognizing Facial Indicators of Frustration: A Learning-Centric Analysis. Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 159-165, 2013.
Eun Young Ha, Chris Mitchell, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, and James Lester. Learning Dialogue Management Models for Task-Oriented Dialogue with Parallel Dialogue and Task Streams. Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue, Metz, France, pp. 204-213, 2013.
Chris Mitchell, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, and James Lester. Evaluating State Representations for Reinforcement Learning of Turn-Taking Policies in Tutorial Dialogue. Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual SIGDIAL Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue, Metz, France, pp. 339-343, 2013.
Joseph Grafsgaard, Joseph Wiggins, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eric Wiebe, and James Lester. Embodied Affect in Tutorial Dialogue: Student Gesture and Posture. Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Memphis, Tennessee, pp. 1-10, 2013.
Wookhee Min, Jonathan Rowe, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Personalizing Embedded Assessment Sequences in Narrative-Centered Learning Environments: A Collaborative Filtering Approach. Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Memphis, Tennessee, pp. 369-378, 2013.
Chris Mitchell, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, and James Lester. A Markov Decision Process Model of Tutorial Intervention in Task-Oriented Dialogue. Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Memphis, Tennessee, pp. 828-831, 2013.
Jennifer Sabourin, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Discovering Behavior Patterns of Self-Regulated Learners in an Inquiry-Based Learning Environment. Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Memphis, Tennessee, pp. 209-218, 2013.
Joseph Grafsgaard, Joseph Wiggins, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eric Wiebe, and James Lester. Automatically Recognizing Facial Expression: Predicting Engagement and Frustration. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Educational Data Mining, Memphis, Tennessee, pp. 43-50, 2013.
Jennifer Sabourin, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Utilizing Dynamic Bayes Nets to Improve Early Prediction Models of Self- Regulated Learning. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization, Rome, Italy, pp. 228-241, 2013. (James Chen Best Student Paper Award)
Jennifer Sabourin, Jonathan Rowe, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Considering Alternate Futures to Classify Off-Task Behavior as Emotion Self-Regulation: A Supervised Learning Approach. Journal of Educational Data Mining, 5(1), 9-38, 2013.
James Lester, Jonathan Rowe, and Bradford Mott. Narrative-Centered Learning Environments: A Story-Centric Approach to Educational Games. Emerging Technologies for the Classroom: A Learning Sciences Perspective, Mouza, C. and Lavigne N. (Eds.), Springer US, Manhattan, New York, USA, pp. 223-238, 2013.
James Lester, Bradford Mott, Jennifer Robison, Jonathan Rowe, and Lucy Shores. Supporting Self-Regulated Science Learning in Narrative-Centered Learning Environments. International Handbook on Metacognition and Learning Technologies, Azevedo, R. & Aleven, V. (Eds.), Springer US, Manhattan, New York, USA, pp. 471-483, 2013.

2012

Joseph Grafsgaard, Robert Fulton, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eric Wiebe, and James Lester. Multimodal Analysis of the Implicit Affective Channel in Computer-Mediated Textual Communication. Proceedings of the Fourteenth ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction, Santa Monica, California, pp. 145-152, 2012.
Joseph Grafsgaard, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, and James Lester. Toward a Machine Learning Framework for Understanding Affective Tutorial Interaction. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Crete, Greece, pp. 52-58, 2012.
Eun Young Ha, Jonathan Rowe, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Goal Recognition with Markov Logic Networks for Player-Adaptive Games. Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Toronto, Canada, pp. 2113-2119, 2012.
Eun Young Ha, Joseph Grafsgaard, Chris Mitchell, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, and James Lester. Combining Verbal and Nonverbal Features to Overcome the 'Information Gap' in Task-Oriented Dialogue. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual SIGDIAL Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue, Seoul, South Korea, pp. 247-256, 2012.
Seung Lee, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Real-Time Narrative-Centered Tutorial Planning for Story-Based Learning. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Crete, Greece, pp. 476-481, 2012.
Angela Meluso, Meixun Zheng, Hiller A. Spires, and James Lester. Enhancing 5th Graders' Science Content Knowledge and Self-efficacy Through Game-based Learning. Computers & Education, 59, 497-504, 2012.
Chris Mitchell, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, and James Lester. From Strangers to Partners: Examining Convergence within a Longitudinal Study of Task-Oriented Dialogue. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual SIGDIAL Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue, Seoul, South Korea, pp. 94-98, 2012.
Jonathan Rowe, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Narrative-Centered Learning Environments. Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning, Seel, N. (Eds.), Springer US, Manhattan, New York, USA, pp. 2423-2426, 2012.
Jennifer Sabourin, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Early Prediction of Student Self-Regulation Strategies by Combining Multiple Models. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Educational Data Mining, Crete, Greece, pp. 156-159, 2012.
Jennifer Sabourin, Lucy Shores, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Predicting Student Self-Regulation Strategies in Game-Based Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Crete, Greece, pp. 141-150, 2012.
Jennifer Sabourin, Jonathan Rowe, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Exploring Inquiry-based Problem-Solving Strategies in Game-based Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Crete, Greece, pp. 470-475, 2012.
Lucy Shores, Kristin Hoffmann, John Nietfeld, and James Lester. The Role of Sub-Problems: Supporting Problem Solving in Narrative-Centered Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Crete, Greece, pp. 464-469, 2012.

2011

Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eun Young Ha, Robert Phillips, and James Lester. The Impact of Task-Oriented Feature Sets on HMMs for Dialogue Modeling. Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual SIGDIAL Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue, Portland, Oregon, pp. 49-58, 2011.
Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Robert Phillips, Amy Ingram, Eun Young Ha, Michael Wallis, Mladen Vouk, and James Lester. Investigating the Relationship Between Dialogue Structure and Tutoring Effectiveness: A Hidden Markov Modeling Approach. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 21(1-2), 65-81, 2011.
Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Joseph Grafsgaard, Eun Young Ha, Robert Phillips, and James Lester. An Affect-Enriched Dialogue Act Classification Model for Task-Oriented Dialogue. Proceedings of the Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Portland, Oregon, pp. 1190-1199, 2011.
Sujith Gowda, Jonathan Rowe, Ryan Baker, Min Chi, and Ken Koedinger. Improving Models of Slipping, Guessing, and Moment-By-Moment Learning with Estimates of Skill Difficulty. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Educational Data Mining, Eindhoven, the Netherlands, pp. 199-208, 2011.
Joseph Grafsgaard, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, and James Lester. Predicting Facial Indicators of Confusion with Hidden Markov Models. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction, Memphis, Tennessee, pp. 97-106, 2011.
Joseph Grafsgaard, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Robert Phillips, and James Lester. Modeling Confusion: Facial Expression, Task, and Discourse in Task-Oriented Tutorial Dialogue. Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 98-105, 2011.
Eun Young Ha, Jonathan Rowe, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Goal Recognition with Markov Logic Networks for Player-Adaptive Games. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment, Palo Alto, California, pp. 32-39, 2011. (Best Paper Award)
Seung Lee, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Director Agent Intervention Strategies for Interactive Narrative Environments. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, Vancouver, Canada, pp. 140-151, 2011.
Seung Lee, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Modeling Narrative-Centered Tutorial Decision Making in Guided Discovery Learning. Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 163-170, 2011.
James Lester, Scott McQuiggan, and Jennifer Sabourin. Affect Recognition and Expression in Narrative-Centered Learning Environments. New Perspectives on Affect and Learning Technologies, R.A. Calvo & S.K. D'Mello (Eds.), Springer, pp. 85-96, 2011.
Jonathan Rowe, Lucy Shores, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Integrating Learning, Problem Solving, and Engagement in Narrative-Centered Learning Environments. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 21(1-2), 115-133, 2011.
Jennifer Sabourin, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Modeling Learner Affect with Theoretically Grounded Dynamic Bayesian Networks. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction, Memphis, Tennessee, pp. 286-295, 2011.
Jennifer Sabourin, Jonathan Rowe, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. When Off-Task is On-Task: The Affective Role of Off-Task Behavior in Narrative-Centered Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 534-536, 2011.
Lucy Shores, Jonathan Rowe, and James Lester. Early Prediction of Cognitive Tool Use in Narrative-Centered Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 320-327, 2011.
Hiller A. Spires, Jonathan Rowe, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Problem Solving and Game-Based Learning: Effects of Middle Grade Students' Hypothesis Testing Strategies on Learning Outcomes. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 44(4), 453-472, 2011.

2010

Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eun Young Ha, Robert Phillips, Michael Wallis, Mladen Vouk, and James Lester. Dialogue Act Modeling in a Complex Task-Oriented Domain. Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual SIGDIAL Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 297-305, 2010.
Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Robert Phillips, Amy Ingram, Eun Young Ha, Michael Wallis, Mladen Vouk, and James Lester. Characterizing the Effectiveness of Tutorial Dialogue with Hidden Markov Models. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pp. 55-64, 2010.
Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, William Lahti, Robert Phillips, Michael Wallis, Mladen Vouk, and James Lester. Principles of Asking Effective Questions During Student Problem Solving. Proceedings of the 41st SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (SIGCSE '10), Milwaukee, Wisconsin, pp. 460-464, 2010.
Eun Young Ha, Alok Baikadi, Carlyle Licata, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Exploring the Effectiveness of Lexical Ontologies for Modeling Temporal Relations with Markov Logic. Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual SIGDIAL Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 75-78, 2010.
Seung Lee, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Optimizing Story-Based Learning: An Investigation of Student Narrative Profiles. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pp. 155-165, 2010.
Scott McQuiggan, Jennifer Robison, and James Lester. Affective Transitions in Narrative-Centered Learning Environments. Educational Technology & Society, 13(1), 40-53, 2010.
Jennifer Robison, Scott McQuiggan, and James Lester. Developing Empirically Based Student Personality Profiles for Affective Feedback Models. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pp. 285-295, 2010.
Jonathan Rowe and James Lester. Modeling User Knowledge with Dynamic Bayesian Networks in Interactive Narrative Environments. Proceedings of the Sixth Annual AI and Interactive Digital Entertainment Conference, Palo Alto, California, pp. 57-62, 2010.
Jonathan Rowe, Lucy Shores, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Individual Differences in Gameplay and Learning: A Narrative-Centered Learning Perspective. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Foundations of Digital Games, Monterey, California, pp. 171-178, 2010.
Jonathan Rowe, Lucy Shores, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Integrating Learning and Engagement in Narrative-Centered Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pp. 166-177, 2010.

2009

Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Robert Phillips, Michael Wallis, Mladen Vouk, and James Lester. The Impact of Instructor Initiative on Student Learning: A Tutoring Study. Proceedings of the Fortieth SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (SIGSCE '09), Chattanooga, Tennessee, pp. 14-18, 2009.
Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eun Young Ha, Michael Wallis, Robert Phillips, Mladen Vouk, and James Lester. Discovering Tutorial Dialogue Strategies with Hidden Markov Models. Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Brighton, U.K., pp. 141-148, 2009.
Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Robert Phillips, Eun Young Ha, Michael Wallis, Mladen Vouk, and James Lester. Modeling Dialogue Structure with Adjacency Pair Analysis and Hidden Markov Models. Proceedings of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics - Human Language Technologies Conference Companion Volume, Boulder, Colorado, pp. 49-52, 2009.
Scott McQuiggan and James Lester. Modeling Affect Expression and Recognition in an Interactive Learning Environment. International Journal of Learning Technology, 4(3-4), 216-233, 2009.
Jennifer Robison, Jonathan Rowe, Scott McQuiggan, and James Lester. Predicting User Psychological Characteristics from Interactions with Empathetic Virtual Agents. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 330-336, 2009.
Jennifer Robison, Scott McQuiggan, and James Lester. Evaluating the Consequences of Affective Feedback in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Proceedings of the International Conference on Affective Computing & Intelligent Interaction, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 37-42, 2009. (Best Student Paper Award)
Jennifer Robison, Scott McQuiggan, and James Lester. Modeling Task-Based vs. Affect-Based Feedback Behavior in Pedagogical Agents: An Inductive Approach. Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Brighton, U.K., pp. 25-32, 2009.
Jonathan Rowe, Scott McQuiggan, Jennifer Robison, and James Lester. Off-Task Behavior in Narrative-Centered Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Brighton, U.K., pp. 99-106, 2009.
Jonathan Rowe, Scott McQuiggan, Jennifer Robison, Darrick Marcey, and James Lester. StoryEval: An Empirical Evaluation Framework for Narrative Generation. Working Notes of the 2009 AAAI Spring Symposium on Intelligent Narrative Technologies II, Stanford University, pp. 103-110, 2009.
Lucy Shores, Jennifer Robison, Jonathan Rowe, Kristin Hoffmann, and James Lester. Narrative-Centered Learning Environments: A Self-Regulated Learning Perspective. Working Notes of the 2009 AAAI Fall Symposium on Cognitive and Metacognitive Educational Systems, Arlington, Virginia, pp. 87-92, 2009.

2008

Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Robert Phillips, Michael Wallis, Mladen Vouk, and James Lester. Balancing Cognitive and Motivational Scaffolding in Tutorial Dialogue. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Montreal, Canada, pp. 239-249, 2008.
Scott McQuiggan, Jonathan Rowe, Sunyoung Lee, and James Lester. Story-Based Learning: The Impact of Narrative on Learning Experiences and Outcomes. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Montreal, Canada, pp. 530-539, 2008.
Scott McQuiggan, Julius Goth, Eun Young Ha, Jonathan Rowe, and James Lester. Student Note-Taking in Narrative-Centered Learning Environments: Individual Differences and Learning Outcomes. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Montreal, Canada, pp. 510-519, 2008.
Scott McQuiggan, Jennifer Robison, and James Lester. Affective Transitions in Narrative-Centered Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Montreal, Canada, pp. 490-499, 2008.
Scott McQuiggan, Jennifer Robison, Robert Phillips, and James Lester. Modeling Parallel and Reactive Empathy in Virtual Agents: An Inductive Approach. Proceedings of the Seventh International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, Estoril, Portugal, pp. 167-174, 2008.
Scott McQuiggan, Jonathan Rowe, and James Lester. The Effects of Empathetic Virtual Characters on Presence in Narrative-Centered Learning Environments. Proceedings of the 2008 SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Florence, Italy, pp. 1511-1520, 2008.
Scott McQuiggan, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Modeling Self-Efficacy in Intelligent Tutoring Systems: An Inductive Approach. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, 18(1-2), 81-123, 2008.
Mark Riedl, Jonathan Rowe, and David Elson. Toward Intelligent Support of Authoring Machinima Media Content: Story and Visualization. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Intelligent Technologies for Interactive Entertainment, Cancun, Mexico, 2008. (Best Paper Award)
Jonathan Rowe, Eun Young Ha, and James Lester. Archetype-Driven Character Dialogue Generation for Interactive Narrative. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 45-58, 2008.

2007

Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Mladen Vouk, and James Lester. The Influence of Learner Characteristics on Task-Oriented Tutorial Dialogue. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Marina del Rey, California, pp. 365-372, 2007. (Best Student Paper Award)
Sunyoung Lee, Scott McQuiggan, and James Lester. Inducing User Affect Recognition Models for Task-Oriented Environments. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on User Modeling, Corfu, Greece, pp. 380-384, 2007.
Scott McQuiggan, Sunyoung Lee, and James Lester. Early Prediction of Student Frustration. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interactions, Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 698-709, 2007.
Scott McQuiggan and James Lester. Modeling and Evaluating Empathy in Embodied Companion Agents. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 65(4), 348-360, 2007.
Jonathan Rowe, Scott McQuiggan, and James Lester. Narrative Presence in Intelligent Learning Environments. Working Notes of the 2007 AAAI Fall Symposium on Intelligent Narrative Technologies, Washington D.C., pp. 126-133, 2007.

2006

Scott McQuiggan, Sunyoung Lee, and James Lester. Predicting User Physiological Response for Interactive Environments: An Inductive Approach. Proceedings of the Second Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Entertainment, Marina del Rey, California, pp. 60-65, 2006.
Scott McQuiggan and James Lester. Diagnosing Self-Efficacy in Intelligent Tutoring Systems: An Empirical Study. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Jhongli, Taiwan, pp. 565-574, 2006.
Scott McQuiggan and James Lester. Learning Empathy: A Data-Driven Framework for Modeling Empathetic Companion Agents. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, Hakodate, Japan, pp. 961-968, 2006.
Bradford Mott, Sunyoung Lee, and James Lester. Probabilistic Goal Recognition in Interactive Narrative Environments. Proceedings of the Twenty-First National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Boston, Massachusetts, pp. 187-192, 2006.
Bradford Mott and James Lester. Narrative-Centered Tutorial Planning for Inquiry-Based Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Jhongli, Taiwan, pp. 675-684, 2006.
Bradford Mott, Scott McQuiggan, Sunyoung Lee, Seung Lee, and James Lester. Narrative-Centered Environments for Guided Exploratory Learning. Proceedings of the AAMAS 2006 Workshop on Agent-Based Systems for Human Learning, Hakodate, Japan, pp. 22-28, 2006.
Bradford Mott and James Lester. U-Director: A Decision-Theoretic Narrative Planning Architecture for Storytelling Environments. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, Hakodate, Japan, pp. 977-984, 2006.

Selected Publications: 1995-2005

James Lester, Karl Branting, and Bradford Mott. Conversational Agents. Practical Handbook of Internet Computing, Singh, M. (Eds.), Chapman Hall & CRC Press, Baton Rouge, 2004.
Karl Branting, James Lester, and Bradford Mott. Dialogue Management for Conversational Case-Based Reasoning. Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Case-Based Reasoning, Madrid, Spain, pp. 77-90, 2004.
Charles Callaway and James Lester. Narrative Prose Generation. Artificial Intelligence, 139(2), 213-252, 2002.
Charles Callaway and James Lester. Pronominalization in Generated Discourse and Dialogue. Proceedings of the Fortieth Meeting of the Association of Computational Linguistics, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, pp. 88-95, 2002.
Roxana Moreno, Rich Mayer, Hiller A. Spires, and James Lester. The Case for Social Agency in Computer-Based Teaching: Do Students Learn More Deeply When They Interact with Animated Pedagogical Agents? Cognition and Instruction, 192(2), 177-213, 2001.
James Lester, Charles Callaway, Joël Grégoire, Gary Stelling, Stuart Towns, and Luke Zettlemoyer. Animated Pedagogical Agents in Knowledge-Based Learning Environments. Smart Machines in Education: The Coming Revolution in Educational Technology, Forbus, K., & Feltovich, P. (Eds.), AAAI/MIT Press, Menlo Park, pp. 269-298, 2001.
Charles Callaway and James Lester. Narrative Prose Generation. Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Seattle, Washington, 2001.
Charles Callaway and James Lester. Evaluating the Effects of Natural Language Generation Techniques on Reader Satisfaction. Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Edinburgh, UK, 2001.
Roxana Moreno, Rich Mayer, and James Lester. Life-Like Pedagogical Agents in Constructivist Multimedia Environments: Cognitive Consequences of Their Interaction. Proceedings of the World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia, and Telecommunications (ED-MEDIA), Montreal, Canada, pp. 741-746, 2000. (Outstanding Paper Award)
W. Lewis Johnson, Jeff Rickel, and James Lester. Animated Pedagogical Agents: Face-to-Face Interaction in Interactive Learning Environments. The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 11, 47-78, 2000.
James Lester, Stuart Towns, Charles Callaway, Jennifer Voerman, and Patrick FitzGerald. Deictic and Emotive Communication in Animated Pedagogical Agents. Embodied Conversational Agents, J. Cassell, S. Prevost, J. Sullivan, & E. Churchill (Eds.), MIT Press, Cambridge, pp. 123-154, 2000.
James Lester, Stuart Towns, and Patrick FitzGerald. Achieving Affective Impact: Visual Emotive Communication in Lifelike Pedagogical Agents. The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 10(3-4), 278-291, 1999.
James Lester, Brian Stone, and Gary Stelling. Lifelike Pedagogical Agents for Mixed-Initiative Problem Solving in Constructivist Learning Environments. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, 9(1-2), 1-44, 1999.
James Lester, Jennifer Voerman, Stuart Towns, and Charles Callaway. Deictic Believability: Coordinating Gesture, Locomotion, and Speech in Lifelike Pedagogical Agents. Applied Artificial Intelligence, 13(4-5), 383-414, 1999.
Clark Elliot, Jeff Rickel, and James Lester. Lifelike Pedagogical Agents and Affective Computing: An Exploratory Synthesis. Artificial Intelligence Today, Lecture Notes In Artificial Intelligence (Subseries of Lecture Notes in Computer Science), Special Volume 1600, M. Wooldridge & M. Veloso (Eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 195-212, 1999.
Bradford Mott, Charles Callaway, Luke Zettlemoyer, Seung Lee, and James Lester. Towards Narrative-Centered Learning Environments. Working Notes of the 1999 AAAI Fall Symposium on Narrative Intelligence, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, pp. 78-82, 1999.
Brent Daniel, William Bares, Charles Callaway, and James Lester. Student-Sensitive Multimodal Explanation Generation for 3D Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Sixteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Orlando, Florida, pp. 114-120, 1999.
Joël Grégoire, Luke Zettlemoyer, and James Lester. Detecting and Correcting Misconceptions with Lifelike Avatars in 3D Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Ninth World Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Le Mans, France, pp. 586-593, 1999.
James Lester, Joël Grégoire, Luke Zettlemoyer, and William Bares. Explanatory Lifelike Avatars: Performing User-Centered Tasks in 3D Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Autonomous Agents, Seattle, Washington, pp. 24-31, 1999.
William Bares and James Lester. Intelligent Multi-Shot Visualization Interfaces for Dynamic 3D Worlds. Proceedings of the 1999 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, Los Angeles, California, pp. 119-126, 1999. (Best Paper Award)
Karl Branting, Charles Callaway, Bradford Mott, and James Lester. Integrating Discourse and Domain Knowledge for Document Drafting. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, Oslo, Norway, pp. 214-220, 1999.
Stuart Towns, Patrick FitzGerald, and James Lester. Visual Emotive Communication in Lifelike Pedagogical Agents. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, San Antonio, Texas, pp. 474-483, 1998.
Stuart Towns, Charles Callaway, Jennifer Voerman, and James Lester. Coherent Gestures, Locomotion, and Speech in Life-Like Pedagogical Agents. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, San Francisco, California, pp. 13-20, 1998. (Superceded by Applied Artificial Intelligence journal article above)
William Bares, Luke Zettlemoyer, and James Lester. Habitable 3D Learning Environments for Situated Learning. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, San Antonio, Texas, pp. 76-85, 1998.
Stuart Towns, Charles Callaway, and James Lester. Generating Coordinated Natural Language and 3D Animations for Complex Spatial Explanations. Proceedings of the Fifteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 112-119, 1998.
William Bares, Joël Grégoire, and James Lester. Realtime Constraint-Based Cinematography for Complex Interactive 3D Worlds. Proceedings of the Tenth National Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 1101-1106, 1998.
William Bares, Luke Zettlemoyer, Dennis Rodriguez, and James Lester. Task-Sensitive Cinematography Interfaces for Interactive 3D Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, San Francisco, California, pp. 81-88, 1998.
James Lester, William Bares, Charles Callaway, and Stuart Towns. Natural Language Generation Journeys to Interactive 3D Worlds. Proceedings of the Ninth International Workshop on Natural Language Generation, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, pp. 2-7, 1998.
Karl Branting, James Lester, and Charles Callaway. Automating Judicial Document Drafting: A Discourse-Based Approach. Artificial Intelligence & Law, 6(2-4), 111-149, 1998. (Also appears in Judicial Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Sartor, G. & Branting, K. (Eds.), pp. 7-45, Kluwer, 1998.)
James Lester, Sharolyn Converse, Brian Stone, Susan Kahler, and Todd Barlow. Animated Pedagogical Agents and Problem-Solving Effectiveness: A Large-Scale Empirical Evaluation. Proceedings of the Eighth World Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Kobe, Japan, pp. 23-30, 1997. (Best Paper Award)
James Lester, Sharolyn Converse, Susan Kahler, Todd Barlow, Brian Stone, and Ravinder Bhogal. The Persona Effect: Affective Impact of Animated Pedagogical Agents. Proceedings of CHI '97, Atlanta, Georgia, pp. 359-366, 1997.
James Lester and Brian Stone. Increasing Believability in Animated Pedagogical Agents. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Autonomous Agents, Marina del Rey, California, pp. 16-21, 1997.
James Lester, Patrick FitzGerald, and Brian Stone. The Pedagogical Design Studio: Exploiting Artifact-Based Task Models for Constructivist Learning. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, Orlando, Florida, pp. 155-162, 1997.
Patrick FitzGerald and James Lester. Knowledge-Based Learning Environments: A Vision for the 21st Century. Interactive Technologies and the Social Sciences: Emerging Issues and Applications, P. Martorella (Eds.), SUNY Press, New York, pp. 111-127, 1997.
William Bares and James Lester. Realtime Generation of Customized 3D Animated Explanations for Knowledge-Based Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Fourteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Providence, Rhode Island, pp. 347-354, 1997.
William Bares and James Lester. Cinematographic User Models for Automated Realtime Camera Control in Dynamic 3D Environments. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on User Modeling, Sardinia, Italy, pp. 215-226, 1997.
Charles Callaway and James Lester. Dynamically Improving Explanations: A Revision-Based Approach to Explanation Generation. Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Nagoya, Japan, pp. 952-958, 1997.
Karl Branting, James Lester, and Charles Callaway. Automated Drafting of Self-Explaining Documents. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 72-81, 1997.
James Lester and Bruce Porter. Developing and Empirically Evaluating Robust Explanation Generators: The KNIGHT Experiments. Computational Linguistics, 23(1), 65-101, 1997.
Brian Stone and James Lester. Dynamically Sequencing an Animated Pedagogical Agent. Proceedings of the Thirteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Portland, Oregon, pp. 424-431, 1996. (Anthologized in Readings in Agents, Huhns, M. & Singh, M. (Eds.), pp. 156-163, Morgan Kaufmann, 1998.) (Superceded by User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction journal article above)
James Lester, Brian Stone, Michael O'Leary, and Robert Stevenson. Focusing Problem Solving in Design-Centered Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Montreal, Canada, pp. 475-483, 1996.
Karl Branting and James Lester. A Framework for Self-Explaining Legal Documents. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Legal Knowledge-Based Systems, Tilburg University, The Netherlands, pp. 77-90, 1996.
Karl Branting and James Lester. Justification Structures for Document Reuse. Proceedings of the Third European Workshop on Case-Based Reasoning, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp. 76-90, 1996.
James Lester and Bruce Porter. Scaling Up Explanation Generation: Large-Scale Knowledge Bases and Empirical Studies. Proceedings of the Thirteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Portland, Oregon, pp. 416-423, 1996.
Charles Callaway and James Lester. Robust Natural Language Generation from Large-Scale Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Fourth Bar-Ilan Symposium on Foundations of Artificial Intelligence, Jerusalem, Israel, pp. 96-105, 1995.


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